- A traditional Jewish greeting or farewell.
Shalom () is a Hebrew and Jewish word meaning peace, Nothing missing, Nothing broken, wellbeing, and complete, and used to mean hello, and goodbye. As it does in English, it can refer to either peace between two entities (especially between man and God or between two countries), or to the well-being, welfare or safety of an individual or a group of individuals. It is also used as a greeting to either say hello or farewell, and is found in many other expressions and names. Its equivalent cognate in Arabic is salaam, Shlomo (ܫܠܡܐ) in Syriac-Assyrian and sälam in Ethiopian Semitic languages from the Hebrew root shin-lamed-mem (ש.ל.ם).
In expressionsThe Word "shalom" can be used for all parts of speech; as a noun, adjective, verb, and as an adverb. It categorizes all shaloms. The word shalom is used in a variety of expressions and contexts in Hebrew speech and writing:
- Shalom aleichem (; "well-being be upon you" or "may you be well"), this expression is used to greet others and is a Hebrew equivalent of "hello". The appropriate response to such a greeting is "upon you be well-being" ( עֲלֵיכֶם שָׁלוֹם, aleichem shalom). This is a cognate of the Arabic Assalamu alaikum. On Erev Shabbat (Sabbath eve), Jewish people have a custom of singing a song which is called Shalom aleichem, before the Kiddush over wine of the Shabbat dinner is recited.
- In the Gospels, Jesus often uses the greeting "Peace be unto you," a translation of shalom aleichem.
- Shalom by itself is a very common abbreviation, and is used in Modern Israeli Hebrew to both greet and farewell. In this it is similar to the Hawaiian aloha, the (rather old-fashioned) English good evening and the Indian namaste. Also in Israel, especially among secular people, "b'ye" (English) and "yallah b'ye" (a mixture of Arabic and English is popular). Shalom is also used by Jewish people around the world, and even by many non-Jewish people.
- Shabbat shalom () is a common greeting used on Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath). This is most prominent in areas with Mizrahi, Sephardi, or modern Israeli influence. Many Ashkenazi communities in the Jewish diaspora use Yiddish Gut shabbes in preference or interchangeably.
- Ma sh'lom'cha (; "what is your well-being/peace?") is a Hebrew equivalent of the English "how are you?". This is the form addressed to a single male. The form for addressing a single female is Ma sh'lomech? For addressing several females, Ma sh'lomchen? For a group of males or a mixed-gender group, Ma sh'lomchem?
- Alav hashalom (; "upon him is peace") is a phrase used in some Jewish communities, especially Ashkenazi ones, after mentioning the name of a deceased respected individual.
- Oseh shalom is the part of a passage commonly found as a concluding sentence in much Jewish liturgy (including the birkat hamazon, kaddish and personal amidah prayers). The full sentence is (Oseh shalom bimromav, hu ya'aseh shalom aleynu, ve'al kol Yisrael ve'imru amen), which translates to English as "He who makes peace in His heights may He make peace upon us and upon all Israel; and say, Amen."
- The word Shalom is widely used in popular Israeli songs such as "In Our Garden," "Ratziti Sheteda," and "Shalom Chaverim."
- U.S. President Bill Clinton ended his eulogy for Yitzhak Rabin with the words Shalom, chaver (Goodbye, friend).
- The word 'Lom (and occasionally Sh'lom) have been used (especially by Jewish teenagers) as the contracted forms of Shalom in street slang.
Related words in Modern Hebrew include l'shalem (), "to pay" and shalem (), "complete".
Used as a name
Shalom as a name for peopleShalom is also common in modern Hebrew in Israel, as a given name or a surname. It is usually used by men as a given name but there are women named Shalom as well.
Notable people named Shalom include:
- Sholom Schwartzbard Poet, assassin of Symon Petliura
- Silvan Shalom (Israeli politician), and his wife Judy Shalom Nir-Mozes
- Sholom Aleichem (Yiddish author)
- Shalom Harlow (model and actress)
- Shalom Carmy (rabbi)
- Shalom Shachna (rabbi)
- Yosef Shalom Eliashiv (rabbi)
- Shalom Hanoch (Israeli rock musician)
Shalom as a name for organizationsShalom can be part of an organization's name.
The name of the following organizations and places refer to "peace" between Israel and its Arab neighbors:
Shalom as name for synagogues or structuresShalom is used as part of other names, such as for synagogues, as in:
Shalom as the name for events
Other uses as/in names
shalom in Aragonese: Shalom
shalom in Catalan: Shalom
shalom in German: Schalom
shalom in Spanish: Shalom
shalom in French: Shalom
shalom in Hebrew: שלום (פירושונים)
shalom in Malay (macrolanguage): Shalom
shalom in Dutch: Sjalom
shalom in Japanese: シャーローム
shalom in Neapolitan: Shalom
shalom in Norwegian: Shalom
shalom in Occitan (post 1500): Shalom
shalom in Polish: Szalom
shalom in Portuguese: Shalom
shalom in Venetian: Shalom
shalom in Walloon: Shalom